Isbadelkii ku yimid habkii go’aan qaadashada Madaxweynihii Mareykanka John F.Kennedy: Qaybti 2-aad

Qoraalkaan waxaa uu si kooban ugu kuur-galeyaa habka go’aan qaadashada madaxweyne Kennedy uu u adeegsadey go’aankii “The Cuban missile crisis” Qalalaasihii ka curtay Gantaalaha ay dawlada Ruushka ay dhigtay dalka Cuba October 1962. dhacdadaan oo la oran karo madaxweyne Kennedy iyo kooxdiisa waa ay ku guuleysteen, go’anaadii ay ka qaateen, iyo habka ay go’aanadu u qateen.

GO’AAN QAADASHADA MADAXWEYNE KENNEDY EE THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” QALALAASIHII KA CURTAY GANTAALAHA NUKLIYEERKA EE KU SUGAN CUBA OCTOBER 1962.

Sida laga soo xigtay Stephen E. Ambrose oo qoray taariikh nololeedkii Madaxweyne Eisenhower wuxuu sheegay in Madaxweyne Kennedy, oo aad uga carooday guuldaradii duullaankii lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”. waxaa uu go’aansaday inuu la kulmo, isla markaana la-tashado Madaxweynihii ka horeeyey, General Dwight Eisenhower, Madaxweyne Kennedy wuxuu Madaxweyne Eisenhower warsadey su’aalo badan oo uu ku goobaayey wixii ka qaldanaa “tactics” Xeeladihii uu u isticmaaleey  “Bay of Pigs”, Madaxweyne Eisenhower wuxuu weydiiyay Madaxweyne Kennedy labo su’aalood  oo ah.

“Tell me about how you brought your advisers together?” Wax iiga sheeg sida aad isugu keentay la taliyayaashaada iyo kooxdaada?

“Tell me about the decision process you used?” waxaad wax iiga sheegtaa habka go'aan qaadashada aad adeegsatay ?

Su’aalaha Madaxweyne Eisenhower waxaa ka muuqatay in habka “process” ka go’aan qaadashada iyo wadatashiga, ay uga muhiimsantahay go’aanka la qaatay iyo xeeladaha “tactics”-ka la xushay. jawaabaha uu bixiyey Madaxweyne Kennedy lama xusin. laakiin Madaxweyne Kennedy marka uu ka soo noqday kulankii uu la yeeshay Madaxweyne Eisenhower, waxaa uu madaxweyne Kennedy isugu yeeray kooxdiisa wuxuuna warsaday sidee u wanaajin karnaa habka aan go'aanka u qaadano?. Wuxuu kale uu madaxweyne Kennedy su’aalay kooxdiisa sidii ay u wajihi lahayeen go’aanada culus ee arrimaha dibadda, ee saameynta weyn ku leh danta dalka mareykanka, si aysan mar kale u dhicin qaladaadkii ka ka dhashay go’aanada duullaankii lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”.

Robert Kennedy, oo ahaa Madaxweyne Kennedy walaalkiis oo markaa ahaa Xeer Ilaaliyaha Guud ee Mareykanka kana tirsana maamulkii Madaxweyne Kennedy. sida Schlesinger uu uga qeyb galay dhammaan shirarka quseeye duulankii lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”. Robert Kennedy wuxuu ku lug lahaa, dhammaan shirarkii quseeyey go’aankii “The Cuban missile crisis” Qalalaasihii ka curtay Gantaalaha ay dawladda Ruushka ay dhigtay dalka Cuba October 1962 . Robert Kennedy wuxuu qoray buug ku saabsan arintaa oo uu ugu magac daray “13 Days” oo u tagaan 13-ka malmood ay taagneyd xisaada Qalalaasihii ka curtay Gantaalaha Cuba ee loo yaqaan  “The Cuban missile crisis”.

Aroortii hore ee October 16, 1962. Madaxweyne Kennedy waxaa loo sheegay in sawirro ay soo qaadey diyaarada Maraykanka ee qaada sawirada basaasnimada ee loo yaqaan “Spy Plane”, ayaa waxaa loo sheegay in ay u muuqatey in gantaalada nukliyeer Ruushka ay yaalaan Cuba. Saacado yar ka dib CIA-da ayaa Madaxweyne Kennedy soo hordhigay Sawiro muujinaayo gantaalo nukliyeer ah iyo dhismaha saldhigyo gantaal oo laga dhisayo dalka Cuba. Kooxdii Madaxweynaha Kennedy la joogtay maalinkaa October 16 markii sawirada la tusay intooda badan waxaa ay si joogto ah u kulmayeen 16 ilaa iyo 28 October, kooxdan ama guddigaan waxaa loogu magac daray "ExComm"  oo ah magac laga soo gaabiyey “The Executive Committee of the National Security Council”, oo u taagan Guddiga Fulinta ee Golaha Amniga Qaranka. Guddiga ExComm waxaa ay inta badan ku kulmayeen si qarsoodi ah qoalalka shirarka wasaaradda arrimaha dibadda ee Mareykanka qol ka mid ah.

Madaxweyne Kennedy iyo La-taliyayaasha badankood markii horey waxay qabeen in talaabada kaliya oo u banaan, ay tahay  weerar militari oo xagga cirka ah lagu qaadayo saldhigyada Cuba ku yaal oo ay gantaalada yaalaan. Madaxweyne Kennedy wuxuu faray Robert Kennedy in Guddiga "ExComm"  ay u soo “bandhigaan “Multiple options” fikrado badan oo kale duwan, waxayna u badantahay madaxweynaha in uu diidanaa in hal fikrad lagu shaqeeyo sida qaladaadkii ka curtay go’aanada duulankii  lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”.

Waxaa muhiim ah in la xuso in dunida oo dhan la dhowrayey sida Mareykanka iyo Ruushka u xaliyaan, qalaalasaha gantaalada Nukliyeer ee ku sugan Cuba, haddii aan heshiis laga gaarin dunida waxaa ay qarka uu saarneyd in ay markii ugu horeysay dhacdo dagaal la isku adeegsado bombada Nukliyeerka.

Robert Kennedy wuxuu sheegay, in shirkii ugu horeeyey ee 16-ka October ay soo bexeen laba fikir oo kala ah,

Guddiga Wadajirka Taliyayaasha Maraykan “The Joint Chiefs of Staffs” waxay yiraahdeen wa in weerar xaga cirka ah lagu qaada Cuba, ayada oo la bartilmaamedsanayo saldhigyada ciidanka ay gantaalada ku sugan yihiin

Wasiirka Gaashaandhiga Robert McNamara wuxuu soo jeedayey fikir ah “Naval blockade” in dhammaan Jaziirada Cuba xaga badda laga xanibo, xanabaadaasna ay fuliyaan ciidanka badda mareykanka.

Madaxweyne Kennedy wuxuu amray Guddiga ExComm in ay dooddooda si wadaan wuxuuna go’aansadey in uusan ka qeyb galin inta badan shirarka ay guddiga yeelanayaan, wuxuuna ku sababeeyey in uu doonayo in shacabka Mareykanka iyo warbaahinta Maraykanka aysan u dareemin wax is badal ah, sidaa daradeed Madaxweyne Kennedy kulamadiisa caadiga oo jadwalkiisa la shaaciyay ku yaal ayuu sii wadey.

Guddiga ExComm waxaa ay kulamadooda si qarsoodi ah ugu qabanayeen qol lagu shiro, oo ku yaal Wasaaradda arrimaha Dibadda maraykanka. Sida laga soo xigtay Robert Kennedy 17-ka October, Guddiga ExComm ayaga oo wali ka dooddayo labada fikir ee kala ah “Naval blockade” in bada Cuba la xanibo oo ahayd soo jeedintii wasiir Gaashandhiga McNamara iyo “Air Strike” in diyaarada ciidanka cirka ah ay duqeeyaan goobaha gantaalada, ay soo jeediyeen Guddiga Wadajirka Taliyayaasha maraykan “The Joint Chiefs of Staffs”, ayaa waxaa la keeney Sawiro cusub oo horleh oo muujinaya dhowr xarumood oo ay yaalaan 16 ilaa 32 gantaalo oo dheeraad ah, Waxaana lagu qiyaasay in gantaaladan ay dili karaan 80 milyan oo Mareykan ah. Arintaan Madaxweyne Kennedy iyo kooxdiisa ku howlan arrintan ee Guddiga ExComm ku abuuray culeys iyo walwal dheeraad ah.

18-ka October, aqlabiyadda Guddiga ExComm ayaa u muuqday kuwa door bideen fikirka wasiirka Gaashandhiga, “Naval blockade” in dhammaan Jaziirada Cuba xaga bada laga xanibo, laakiin sida laga soo xigtay Robert Kennedy markii ay Guddiga ExComm la kulmeen Madaxweyne Kennedy oo uu bilaabay in u warsado su’aalo adag , xubno guddiga ka tirsan ayaa fikirkooda badaley, madaxweynaha wuxuu amray in guddiga ay isku noqdaan.

18-ka October Robert Kennedy waxaa laga soo xigtay in uu yiri: ugu dambayntii anaga oo ah Guddiga ExComm, waxaan ku heshiinnay nidaam aanu u aragnay inaan ku siin karno talooyin caqli gal ah Madaxweyne Kennedy. Robert Kennedy wuxuu sheegay in Guddiga loo kala qeybiyey laba koox oo u kala qeybsan labada fikir ee kala ah xanibada badda “Naval Blockade” iyo duqeeynta xaga cirka “Air strikes”. Koox walba waxaa la faray in ay diyaariso qudbadii uu madaxweynaha aqrin lahaa, haddii u fikir kooda qaato ilaa iyo talabooyinka loo baahanyahay dawlad ahaan in la qaado haddii la fulinayo fikirkooda.

Isla galabtaas waxaa ay labada kooxod ee ka wada tirsan Guddiga ExComm isweydaarsadeen qoraaladooda, koox walba waxaa ay muujisay dulduleedyada fikirka kooxda kale, hadana waxaa ay is weydaarsadeen jawaabihii iyo su’aalihi ka curtay qoraaladaas, koox walbana waxaa loo soo celiyey qoraaladooda si ay wax uga badalaan habkii ay fikirkooda u soo bandhigeen una sii xoojiyaan sida uu fikirkooda ku shaqeyn karo ama ay u difaacan lahayeen.

Robert Kennedy wuxuu sheegay Kulamada Guddiga ExComm inta ay socdeen in lagu heshiyey, in aan lagu shaqeyn hab maamuska caadiga ahaa “suspended the rules of protocol”. xubnaha waxaa ay si furan ula hadli karaan madaxdooda inta ay dooddu socoto, taa oo macneheedu tahay doodda waa lagu wada siman yahay. inta ay dooddaha jiraan aan la kala sareynin,  ayna dhammaan xubnaha Guddiga ExComm ku jira, si saraxad leh oo hufan  u doodi karaan ayaga oo aan cabsi kala qabin, si aysan xubnaha fikirkooda ula baqin. Labada kooxod ma qabin qof gudoomiye ah mana jirin wax darajo ah oo la’isku isticmaalayey. Robert Kennedy wuxuu yiri dhammaanteen xubnaha waxaa wax u  Falanqeeynaynay si siman oo isku heer ah. Sido kale waxaa la fasaxay in dhamaantooda ay ka doodi karaan xalka ayaga oo isku xakameyn shaqadooda ama xirfadooda-shaqo oo kaliya, taa oo macnaheedu tahay in xubnaha ay ka doodi karaan qodobka doodda tusaale ahaan sida arrimaha la xiriira ciidanka iyo arrimaha dibadda, xitaa haddii aysan ahayn xubno ka tirsan ciidanka ama wasaaradda arrimaha dibadda. Si loo helo fikir shaqeynayo oo madaxweyne Kennedy loola wadaagi karo.

Irving Janis oo daraasad ka sameeyey isla markaana taxliliyey habka go’aan qadashada Madaxweyne Kennedy iyo kooxdisa Guddiga “ExComm” ee ku howlana qalalaasihii ka curtay gantaalaha nukliyeerka ee ku sugan cuba  “The Cuban missile crisis”. ayaa waxaa Janis laga soo xigtay  in ay jireen Laba qof o door muhiim ah ka qaatey tayeeynta doodda guddiga labadaas oo kala ah Robert Kennedy iyo Theodore Sorensen oo ahaa La-Taliyaha xaga sharciga ee Madaxweyne Kennedy. Robert Kennedy iyo Theodore Sorensen oo ku kala biiray labada kooxood ayaa kaalintoodu waxay ahayd in ay si indheer-garadnimo ku jirto  u ilaaliyaan in ay doodi socoto ayada oo tayo leh, sida la sheegay madaxweynaha wuxuu faray labadooduba in ay muhiim tahay in ay u fiirsadaan soo jeedin “Proposal”  kasta, si ay u imtixaaman dulduleedyada ay yeelan karto soo jeedintaa oo ay dhalleeceeyaan isla markaana raadiyaan qataraha kujira soo jedin walba oo miiska saaran.

Ugu danbeyntii Guddiga ExComm waxaa ay la kulmeen Madaxweyne Kennedy. Wasiirka Gaashandhiga McNamara wuxuu u soo bandhigay fikir ah “Naval blockade” in dhammaan Jaziirada Cuba xaga badda laga xanibo, xanabaadaasna ay fuliyaan ciidanka badda mareykanka. Guddiga Wadajirka Taliyayaasha Maraykan “The Joint Chiefs of Staffs” waxay soo bandhigeen “Air strikes”. duqeeynta xaga cirka, ayada oo la bartilmaamedsanayo saldhigyada ciidanka ay gantaalada ku sugan yihiin. Madaxweyne Kennedy ayaa si fiican u dhageystay doodaha labada dhinac, sidoo kale labada dhinac waxaa u waydiiyey su’aalo aad u fara badan oo adag. wuxuu weydiiyaa su'aalo badan oo adag. Ugu danbeyntii Madaxweyne Kennedy waxaa u doortay in uu qato fikirka Wasiirka Gaashandhiga McNamara ee ahaa “Naval blockade” in dhamaan Jaziirada  Cuba xaga badda laga xanibo, xanabaadaasna ay fuliyaan ciidanka badda Mareykanka iyo in lagu lamaaniyo wadahadal diblomaasiyadeed lagu xoojiyo Qaramada midoobay isla markaana wada hadal toos ah lala yeesho dawladda Ruushka.

Madaxweyne Kennedy go’aankii uu qaatey waa u ku guuleystay, Gantaaladii nukliyerka ruushka waa ay ka qadeen Cuba, ayada oo aynaan dhicin wax dagaal ah.

HADABA, WAA MAXAY TILMAAMAHA HANNAANKA GO'AAN QAADASHADA TAYADA LEH?

Janis ayaa waxaa uu darasaadkiisa ku sheegay tilmaamaha lagu garan karo hannaanka go'aan qaadashada tayada leh, waxaa uuna ku soo koobay qodobada hoos ku xusan oo ah kuwa looga hortagi karo caqabadaha “Groupthink”

  • “Multiple alternatives” ama “Multiple options” oo ah in la helo fikrado badan oo kala duwan si ay u bataan fursadaha xalka lagu heli karo, tusaale ahaan Madaxweyne Kennedy wuxuu faray Robert Kennedy in Guddiga "ExComm" ay u soo “bandhigaan “Multiple options” fikrado badan oo kale duwan, waxayna u badantahay madaxweynaha in uu diidanaa in hal fikrad lagu shaqeeyo sida qaladaadkii ka curtay go’aanada duullaankii  lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”.
  • “Testing of assumptions” wacaa lagu macneyn karaa in la imtixaano aragtiyada ay ka qabaan xaqiiqoyinka jira, taa oo ay si joogta ah isku dhaafsanayeen dulduleedyada ku jira qoraalada ay koox walba soo gudbisay.
  • “Vigorous debate”dhiirigalinta in la yeesho dood-adag taa oo ah: isku-horimaad wax lagu dhisayo, oo loo yaqaan “constructive conflict”
  • “Broad perspective” Aragti ballaaran: in ay xubnaha lahaadaan aragti ballaaran, sida aysan wax uga eegin meel hoose oo kaliya ay ka fakaraan aragtida madaxweynaha xilka ka saran, sida in ay qoraan qudbada madaxweynaha hadii uu qaato fikradooda ficilkaan oo ku qasbaayo si hufan oo balaaran in ay u eegaan aragtida ay soo gudbinayaan.
  • “No strict deference to experts” Inaan khubaradu kaliya la siin tixgelin qaas ah sida, CIA-da kaliya ay uga doodayeen una maamulayeen go’aankii lagu guul dareystay ee duullaankii lagu taagerayey mucaaradka Cuba ee “Bay of Pigs”
  • “A team of equals” sinaanta xubnaha inta doodad lagu jiro, haddii kala sareyn iyo xilal la isku adeegsado dood seraaxa leh lama heliyo taa oo caqabd ku noqonayso in wada hadal qiimo leh u dhaco.sidaa daradeed Guddiga ExComm in ay si siman u doodaan waxaa ay soo dhaweysay in aragtiyo iyo fikrado hufan la helo.

Waxa qoray, Cawaale Cali Kullane

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